The Wisconsin Environmental Education Board (WEEB) has enthusiastically adopted and 
supports the implementation of Wisconsin’s Plan for Environmental Literacy and Sustainable 
Communities . This plan is the latest in a long line of environmental education initiatives in the 
state . Beginning with the Conservation Movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s through 
the Environmental Movement in the 1960s and 70s and on to today, residents of Wisconsin 
have played a key role in shaping the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals, groups, 
and organizations with respect to environmental issues at the national, regional, and local 
levels . As a new century has just begun, this plan provides a pathway for all of us to build 
upon this prior work and move forward in developing an environmentally literate society 
comprised of sustainable communities . 
Wisconsin’s Plan for Environmentally Literate and 
Sustainable Communities (referred to in this document 
as the “Plan”) serves as a strategic plan for achieving 
the vision of environmentally literate and sustainable 
communities across Wisconsin . The Plan is meant to 
build capacity, awareness, and support for environmental 
literacy and sustainability at home, work, school, and 
play . It encourages funding, research, and education for 
environmental literacy and sustainability and it supports 
Wisconsin’s Plan to Advance Education for Environmental 
Literacy and Sustainability in PK-12 Schools. 
This Plan was developed through input from diverse 
representatives from around the state, all of whom— 
like many before them—are attentive to the health and 
well-being of Wisconsin’s people, the stewardship of our 
natural resources, the sustainability of our communities, 
and to leaving a positive legacy for the future . Wisconsin 
people value the state’s natural resources and the functions 
these resources serve at home, work, school, and play . 
This commitment to protecting and conserving valued 
resources can and does lead to sustainable communities 
that enjoy a healthy environment, a prosperous economy, 
and a vibrant civic life . The purpose of this Plan, therefore, 
is to provide a roadmap, a course of action, individuals, 
organizations, businesses and governments must 
take to attain environmental literacy and sustainable 
communities . By providing a shared vision, mission, 
and goals, encouraging the use of common language, 
and promoting collaborative efforts, the Plan offers the 
opportunity for extraordinary impact and change . 
The Wisconsin Environmental Education Board (WEEB) is charged with 
leadership for environmental education for all people in the state and is required 
to develop a strategic plan every ten years . This Plan was born from that 
demand . WEEB’s previous strategic plan, A Plan for Advancing Environmental 
Education in Wisconsin: EE2010, had seven goals that were based on the central 
purposes of providing positive leadership; developing local leaders; developing 
and implementing curricula; and furthering professional development . 
An assessment provided insight into this plan’s successes and what remains to be 

done . Major successes include: 
The creation of a website, EEinWisconsin .org, which acts as a tool for 
statewide communication and a clearinghouse for both formal and non- 
formal environmental education in Wisconsin . 
The WEEB’s use of the goals in its grants program . 
The initiation of research in environmental literacy and sustainability . 
The establishment of Wisconsin Environmental Education Foundation, 
which is leading the way toward more sustainable funding for 
environmental education . 
The assessment found more work needs to be done to support and enhance 
non-formal and non-traditional environmental education . The Plan addresses 
this need and sets new goals . 


Collaboration with Other Efforts 


Wisconsin’s Plan for Environmentally Literate and Sustainable Communities 
considers educational needs and responses for the whole community and 
supports sustainable practices at home, work, school, and play . The Plan is 
coordinated with and supported by two additional statewide efforts to advance 
the implementation of the Plan’s goals and the integration of sustainability . They 
are: 
Wisconsin’s Plan to Advance Education for Environmental Literacy and 
Sustainability in PK-12 Schools addresses multiple aspects related directly 
to pre-kindergarten through high school student learning to ensure every 
student graduates environmentally literate . (NCLIwisconsin .org) 
Cultivating Education for Sustainability in Wisconsin builds capacity 
and support for schools and communities to focus student learning on 
sustainability . It provides recommendations for resources and services to 
implement education for sustainability in schools . (www .uwsp .edu/wcee/efs) 
2 Wisconsin’s Plan for Environmentally Literate and Sustainable Communities 

Benefits of a State Plan 


Provide a common vision and set of goals for people in Wisconsin to work 
toward . 
Guide decision-making, policy making and priority setting . 
Serve as justification for and purpose behind creating or continuing 
programs, tools and resources . 
Set priorities for development and delivery of educational programs, 
business plans, and community efforts . 
Rationale and guidance for funding and research efforts . 


How to Use the Plan 


Wisconsin’s Plan for Environmentally Literate and Sustainable Communities is 
not an organization, but rather a document that serves as the state strategic plan 
requiring partnerships and collaboration . It is designed to serve as reference 
material for individuals, businesses, and communities . Those who influence 
environmental literacy and sustainability in Wisconsin such as community 
leaders, traditional and non-formal educators and administrators, resources 
developers and providers, policy makers, funders and researchers will find the 
Plan useful as a guide in setting priorities and making decisions . Over the course 
of the next decade, the Plan’s desired outcomes will be central to environmental 
literacy and sustainability efforts across the state . As Wisconsin people work 
toward achieving the four main outcomes of the Plan, this document can help 
guide attitudes, planning, actions, and endeavors . 

Wisconsin Green & Healthy Schools Program


Schools across Wisconsin are demonstrating their commitment to a more sustainable Earth, stronger communities and healthier, more productive learning environments for students by choosing to join the Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools program. The Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools program is a web-based, self-paced and voluntary program available to all Wisconsin public and private elementary, middle and high schools. The program is designed to support and encourage schools in their quest for a healthy, safe, and environmentally-friendly learning environment.


Our Mission

Meadowbrook Students Recycling


The Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools program aims to increase the students’ knowledge and awareness of Wisconsin’s natural resources and the environmental, health, and safety concerns and challenges that face our schools, our communities, and our Earth. The Green and Healthy Schools program will help students develop the necessary skills and expertise to address these challenges, and to foster life-long attitudes, behaviors, and commitments in order to make informed decisions and to encourage students to become active participants in their communities*. Furthermore, by completing the steps of the program schools will discover ways that their individual school can provide a safe, clean, and green school that promotes a productive learning environment and in doing so will help to conserve and protect our valuable natural resources.
(*Portions of the Green and Healthy Mission were taken from UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration, 1977).


Awards and Recognitions


The journey to becoming a Wisconsin Green and Healthy School requires hard work, active participation, and a strong commitment to attaining a healthy and environmentally responsible school. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction want to recognize your school’s achievements at every step of the program through a succession of awards and recognitions [PDF 125KB]. Your school is encouraged to display these awards around your school building to inform staff, students, parents, and the community of your continued commitment to providing students and staff with a healthier and greener learning environment.

Mom Was Right: Go Outside

Young children are increasingly shunning the country, even as scientists outline the mental benefits of spending time in natural settings.
  • May 25, 2012, 11:26 a.m. ET
  • By JONAH LEHRER
After a brief exposure to the outdoors, people are more creative, happier and better able to focus.
Humans are quickly becoming an indoor species.
In part, this is a byproduct of urbanization, as most people now live in big cities. Our increasing reliance on technology is also driving the trend, with a recent study concluding that American children between the ages of 8 and 18 currently spend more than four hours a day interacting with technology.
As a result, there's no longer time for nature: From 2006 to 2010, the percentage of young children regularly engaging in outdoor recreation fell by roughly 15 percentage points.
This shift is occurring even as scientists outline the mental benefits of spending time in natural settings. According to the latest research, untamed landscapes have a restorative effect, calming our frazzled nerves and refreshing the tired cortex. After a brief exposure to the outdoors, people are more creative, happier and better able to focus. If there were a pill that delivered these same results, we'd all be popping it.
Consider a forthcoming paper by psychologist Ruth Ann Atchley and her colleagues at the University of Kansas. To collect their data, the researchers partnered with the nonprofit Outward Bound, which takes people on extended expeditions into nature. To measure the mental benefits of hiking in the middle of nowhere, Dr. Atchley gave 60 backpackers a standard test of creativity before they hit the trail. She gave the same test to a different group of hikers four days into their journey.
The results were surprising: The hikers in the midst of nature showed a nearly 50% increase in performance on the test of creativity, and the effect held across all age groups.
"There's a growing advantage over time to being in nature," says Dr. Atchley. "We think that it peaks after about three days of really getting away, turning off the cellphone. It's when you have an extended period of time surrounded by that softly fascinating environment that you start seeing all kinds of positive effects in how your mind works."
This latest study builds on a growing body of evidence demonstrating the cognitive benefits of nature. Although many of us find the outdoors alienating and uncomfortable—the bugs, the bigger critters, the lack of climate control—the brain reacts to natural settings by, essentially, sighing in relief.
In 2009, a team of psychologists led by Marc Berman at the University of Michigan outfitted undergraduates with GPS receivers. Some of the students took a stroll in an arboretum, while others walked around the busy streets of downtown Ann Arbor.
The subjects were then run through a battery of psychological tests. People who had walked through the natural setting were in a better mood and scored significantly higher on tests of attention and short-term memory, which involved repeating a series of numbers backward. In fact, just glancing at a photograph of nature led to measurable improvements, at least when compared with pictures of cities.
This also helps to explain an effect on children with attention-deficit disorder. Several studies show that, when surrounded by trees and animals, these children are less likely to have behavioral problems and are better able to focus on a particular task.
Scientists have found that even a relatively paltry patch of nature can confer cognitive benefits. In the late 1990s, Frances Kuo, director of the Landscape and Human Health Laboratory at the University of Illinois, began interviewing female residents in the Robert Taylor Homes, a massive housing project on the South Side of Chicago.
Dr. Kuo and her colleagues compared women who were randomly assigned to various apartments. Some had a view of nothing but concrete sprawl, the blacktop of parking lots and basketball courts. Others looked out on grassy courtyards filled with trees and flower beds. Dr. Kuo then measured the two groups on a variety of tasks, from basic tests of attention to surveys that looked at how the women were handling major life challenges. She found that living in an apartment with a view of greenery led to significant improvements in every category.
Cities are here to stay; so are smartphones. What this research suggests, however, is that we need to make time to escape from everyone else, to explore those parts of the world that weren't designed for us. It's when we are lost in the wild that the mind is finally at home.
Ever wonder why SNC is Soda free? Do you know what happens when you drink soda? More than you might imagine. Look at the various health effects of that sip of soda on your body, from your teeth to your heart to your bones. Maybe you will stop drinking it at home as well.

soda-health-pop
Live Long and take care of your Health.... Make good choices

As you may have heard, the Wisconsin Association for Environmental Education (WAEE), in partnership with the Wisconsin League of Conservation Voters (WLCV), is advocating for EE by way of a "Wisconsin Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights".....read more what you can do
permalink=”http://www.swiftnaturecamp.com/blog”>
This resolution, if passed, will help pave the way for environmental education, clean water, soil and air, and help foster environmental stewardship in today's children. 

Now is a good time to show your support for this effort - here's how:

 

1. Attend Lobby Day - March 16th, 2011


The Wisconsin League of Conservation Voters (WLCV) has declared the Wisconsin Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights a legislative priority for 2011-12. You can show your support and speak directly with legislators about this issue at WLCV's Lobby Day on March 16th. For more information and to register for this exciting and empowering day, visit: 
Lobby Day 2011.

You are also invited to attend:
WAEE's Lobby Day Breakfast 
Immediately preceding WLCV's Lobby Day
9-10am March 16th, 2011
Monona Terrace Room M/Q
Madison

RSVP to WAEE Advocacy Chair, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

There's more you can do:


2. Sign on as a 
Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights Supporter.

3. Contact Your Legislator to let them know EE is important in Wisconsin and mention the Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights. 

4. Forward this information to your colleagues.


What is the Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights?


Children who have the opportunity to explore, learn and play in Wisconsin's outdoors are more likely to be healthy, to do better in school, to experience improved creativity and concentration, and to discover the rewards of outdoor stewardship. To that end, we believe the children of Wisconsin have the right to experience each of the following (draft) activities during their youth:

 

Every Wisconsin child has the right to:


• Follow a trail, whether by hiking or biking.
• Visit a working farm.
• Eat healthy and sustainable food.
• Splash, swim and play in a clean Wisconsin lake or river.
• Catch and release frogs, fireflies, and insects.
• Tap a maple tree.
• Explore wild places close to home.
• Eat a fish they catch.
• Discover Wisconsin’s diverse wilderness – prairies, forests, wetlands, and beaches.
• Share a hunting experience with a great mentor or teacher.

 

Why is it important to get involved? 

 

In order to pass this resolution, we need your help! Over a thousand bills and resolutions come across our legislators desks each year but only about 30% are passed. Those that pass do so thanks to people like you. Legislators tell us they are significantly more likely to consider a bill or resolution if they've heard about it from their constituents. 

 

Is the timing right?


Now is a great time speak up for EE: the Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights is a non-budgetary resolution and may be just what legislators are looking for to stand behind (rather than the politically charged "budget repair" bill). However, in order to be heard above the current turmoil and get legislators' support, it's critical the EE community comes forward to declare "EE in our state is important". 
  

Questions?


Need more information or want to learn more about how this venture got started and where it can take us? Visit the 
Wisconsin Children's Outdoor Bill of Rightswebsite or contact us - we're happy to discuss this exciting project with you:

WAEE 
Betsy Parker, Networking & Advocacy Chair
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(608) 209.2909

With 2011 almost over did you know that it was the year of the Turtle?
If you did...What have you done about it.
If not there is still time to save nearly 40% of the turtles that are threatened .
permalink=”http://www.swiftnaturecamp.com/blog”>

Why Turtles, and Why Now?


Turtles are disappearing from the planet faster than any other group of animal. Today, nearly 50% of turtle species are identified as threatened with extinction. However, it's not too late for our turtle heritage to be salvaged. The United States has more endemic turtle species than anywhere on Earth; a turtle biodiversity hotspot. Our careful stewardship can preserve the rare species and keep 'common species common.'
Throughout the year, we will be raising awareness of the issues surrounding turtles through press releases, newsletters, photo contests, and related events. We believe that citizens, natural resource managers, scientists, and the pet and food and related industries can work together to address issues and to help ensure long-term survival of turtle species and populations.


Threats to US Turtles


The bad news is humans cause the largest harm to turtle populations, but the good news is we have the power to make positive changes toward turtle survival. The largest threats to turtle populations include (with the top 3 caused primarily by humans):
  • habitat loss and degradation
  • overharvest of wild turtles for food, traditional medicines, and pets
  • mortality from roads, agricultural machinery, fishing bycatch, and predators
  • invasive exotic species and diseases
  • loss of unique genetic makeup due to hybridization
  • climate change
Bookmark www.yearoftheturtle.orgfor more information on how you can get involved!


This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for our monthly newsletters, containing: 


  • A downloadable turtle photo calendar for each month, including a photo contest – your photo could be in the calendar!
  • Information about turtle conservation efforts and groups, and how you can help
  • Interviews with turtle experts, and answers to selected questions that YOU send us!
  • Information on how you can help spread the word about turtles
  • Educational materials
  • Turtle art, poetry, and cultural information
  • ... and much, MUCH, more!
  • At Swift Nature Camp you can learn more with hands on studies with turtles.

Wisconsin Green & Healthy Schools Program


Schools across Wisconsin are demonstrating their commitment to a more sustainable Earth, stronger communities and healthier, more productive learning environments for students by choosing to join the Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools program. The Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools program is a web-based, self-paced and voluntary program available to all Wisconsin public and private elementary, middle and high schools. The program is designed to support and encourage schools in their quest for a healthy, safe, and environmentally-friendly learning environment.


Our Mission


Meadowbrook Students Recycling
The Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools program aims to increase the students’ knowledge and awareness of Wisconsin’s natural resources and the environmental, health, and safety concerns and challenges that face our schools, our communities, and our Earth. The Green and Healthy Schools program will help students develop the necessary skills and expertise to address these challenges, and to foster life-long attitudes, behaviors, and commitments in order to make informed decisions and to encourage students to become active participants in their communities*. Furthermore, by completing the steps of the program schools will discover ways that their individual school can provide a safe, clean, and green school that promotes a productive learning environment and in doing so will help to conserve and protect our valuable natural resources.
(*Portions of the Green and Healthy Mission were taken from UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration, 1977).


Awards and Recognitions


The journey to becoming a Wisconsin Green and Healthy School requires hard work, active participation, and a strong commitment to attaining a healthy and environmentally responsible school. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction want to recognize your school’s achievements at every step of the program through a succession of awards and recognitions [PDF 125KB]. Your school is encouraged to display these awards around your school building to inform staff, students, parents, and the community of your continued commitment to providing students and staff with a healthier and greener learning environment.

 

2011-2012 is the Year of the Bat! Now is the time to educate children regarding the essential roles of bats in maintaining healthy ecosystems and human economies has never been more important. Bats are found nearly everywhere and....
approximately 1,200 species account for almost a quarter of all mammals. Nevertheless, in recent decades their populations have declined alarmingly. Many are now endangered, though they provide invaluable services that we cannot afford to lose. 
 
Simply because they are active only at night and difficult to observe and understand, bats rank among our planet’s most misunderstood and intensely persecuted mammals. Those that eat insects are primary predators of the vast numbers that fly at night, including ones that cost farmers and foresters billions of dollars in losses annually. As such bats decline, demands for dangerous pesticides grow, as does the cost of growing crops like rice, corn and cotton. 
 
Fruit and nectar-eating bats are equally important in maintaining whole ecosystems of plant life. In fact, their seed dispersal and pollination services are crucial to the regeneration of rain forests which are the lungs and rain makers of our planet. 

Many of the plants which depend on such bats are additionally of great economic value, their products ranging from timber and tequila to fruits, spices, nuts and even natural pesticides. 
 
Scary media stories notwithstanding, bats are remarkably safe allies. Where I live, in Austin, Texas, 1.5 million bats live in crevices beneath a single downtown bridge. When they began moving in, public health officials warned that they were diseased and dangerous--potential attackers of humans. Yet, through Bat Conservation International, we educated people to simply not handle them, and 30 years later, not a single person has been attacked or contracted a disease. Fear has been replaced by love as these bats catch 15 metric tons of insects nightly and attract 12 million tourist dollars each summer. 
 
It is now well demonstrated that people and bats can share even our cities at great mutual benefit. As we will show through varied Year of the Bat activities, bats are much more than essential. They’re incredibly fascinating, delightfully likeable masters of our night skies. 

Statement by Dr. Merlin Tuttle

Honorary Ambassador
Pasted Graphic
Last summer was a very exciting summer because we got to participate in REAL SCIEN!CE Thats right in a project funded by the State of Wisconsin we raised a biological contorl thatreduces the evasive spies of Eurasion Milfoil. The milfoil weevil is a natural plant predator of some types of milfoil and has been studied by researchers as a biological control for Eurasian watermilfoil for over two decades. Weevils are commonly found the SNC lake. However, because milfoil grows so fast, natural populations of weevils cannot typically control it. Our goal was to boost the natural weevil population to sustainable levels high enough to effectively control the milfoil over the long-term.We started with 750 weevels in our 10 tanks each of which held 50gallons. We feed the weevels Milfoil during the summer and released nearly 1500 weevels. We were hoping to relaese even more but for some reason, probably a cool summer we had less breeding weevels. We will be doing the same program again in 2012 to see if we can even increase production

Mass rearing of milfoil weevils (Euhrychiopsis lecontei
by volunteers: Pilot Study 
Phase I 

AMY THORSTENSON
FEBRUARY 2012 


Stevens Point, WI 
715/343-6215 
www.goldensandsrcd.org



Introduction 

Biological control studies are currently underway in Wisconsin to improve the 
science of applied biological control of Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM). Many lake groups 
are eagerly awaiting the results of those studies and are interested in applying biological 
control in their lake. However, for many cash-strapped lake groups, purchasing their 
weevils outright would be cost-prohibitive. As we move forward in our understanding of 
the biological control of EWM, this mass rearing pilot study aims to move us forward in 
making milfoil weevils a more practical option for lake groups with more sweat equity 
than cash. The mass rearing method (Thorstenson 2011) is labor intensive and must 
be followed to the letter in order to maximize success. Phase I of this pilot study was 
the first year of evaluating the capability of volunteer groups to successfully produce 
weevils on a mass scale. 

Methods

Study area —Lake Holcombe (Chippewa/Rusk Co) is a 2,881-acre impoundment 
of the Chippewa River, with a maximum depth of 61 ft. Large parcels of the riparian 
properties belong to the State of Wisconsin or paper company holdings and remain in 
natural/wooded condition. The Minong Flowage (Douglas/Washburn Co) is a 1,587- 
acre impoundment of the Totagatic River, with a maximum depth of 21 feet and 
surrounding natural/wooded shoreline. Goose Lake (Adams Co) is an 84-acre seepage 
lake with a maximum depth of 22 ft and surrounding natural/wooded shoreline. 
Study Design — Weevil rearing methods were modeled after Hanson, et al. 
1995, with modifications based graduate work conducted by Amy Thorstenson at UW-



Stevens Point (Thorstenson2011). Hanson, et al. reported that an outdoor stock tank 
performed just as well their indoor, controlled 20-gal aquariums, with less management 
time invested. Thorstenson’s studies found similar results, and developed a simplified 
method for outdoor, mass rearing. 
Each lake group set-up and maintained 10, 370-L “Freeland poly-tuf stock tanks 
(79cm W x 132cm L x 63cm H), stationed in an outdoor area where full sun and access 
to a clean water supply was available. The sunniest location available was selected to 
keep the milfoil stems (food stems) healthy, but water temperatures were monitored to 
ensure they did not approach lethal temperatures (34 C / 93 F). Water temperatures 
were monitored with aquarium thermometers and recorded regularly. Fresh water was 
added as needed to top off the tanks. NoSeeUm (0.033 cm mesh) light duty fiberglass 
screening was used to cover the tanks and pools. While the primary use of the 
screening was to exclude predator/competitor insects and birds, it also functioned as 
light shade to reduce peak temperatures in the tanks during sunlight hours. 

EWM stems to be used for food were collected from the same lake that would be 
the recipient of the weevils reared. Stems were collected from the deepest milfoil beds 
available, farthest from shore, where naturally occurring weevils were less likely to be 
present, in order to avoid the inadvertent introduction of unaccounted for weevils. To 
minimize the introduction of predator or competitor insects, the collected food stems 
were laid thinly over a mesh screen and sprayed with a hose and nozzle at a pressure 
sufficient to clean the milfoil but not damage it. Cleaned stems were then be floated in a 
wading pool of clean water, sorted and untangled. Because weevils lay their eggs on 



apical meristems, only stems with apical meristems were retained for use; stems that 
had gone to flower or had broken tips were be discarded. Stems were trimmed to a 
length sufficient to reach from the base of the rearing chamber to the surface of the 
chamber’s water (62 cm). Stems were then bundled together in groups of fifteen stems, 
and attached at the base to a rock with a rubber-band to weight the stems down and 
achieve vertical orientation in the rearing chamber. All chambers received an initial 
stocking of milfoil food bundles, with stockings repeated every 21 days to keep the 
weevils supplied with actively growing milfoil (Table 1). 
Table 1 
Weevil feeding schedule. 

# of EWM 
stems to feed 
per tank 
Day 0 
Day 21 
Day 42 
105 
165 
225 

The “starter batch” of weevils were purchased from EnviroScience, Inc., Ohio. 
EnviroScience Inc. provided weevil stock from northern Wisconsin, in order to ensure 
weevils with winter-hardy genetics. Each tank was stocked with 0.19 weevils/L (72 
weevils per 100-gal tank). The purchased weevils arrived as eggs and early instar 
larvae attached to bundles of milfoil stems in sealed plastic bags. The estimated 
number of weevils in each bag was written on the outside of each bag, however the 
number of weevils inside were assumed to be unevenly distributed amongst the milfoil 
stems within. Therefore, the stems were placed into a large tub of water and counted to 
derive an estimated average of weevils per stem. Stems were then selected randomly 



to accumulate the number of weevils needed to stock each rearing chamber. Thus, the 
number of weevils initially stocked to each rearing chamber was an estimated average. 

Chambers were maintained for approximately 55 days, allowing enough time for 
producing two generations. Prior to releasing the weevils to their recipient lake, 
subsamples were extracted to estimate total production. A 10% subsample of the 
weevil-containing food stems were extracted from four of the ten tanks (selected at 
random), preserved in 80% isopropyl alcohol, and refrigerated until laboratory 
examination. The preserved subsample stems was examined by Thorstenson by 
floating stems in water in a glass pan over a light table, with 3x magnification goggles. 
Each stem was carefully examined for weevil eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults and the 
total number of weevils recorded. The assistance of a higher power (30x) Carson 
MagniscopeTM was used for identification of specimens when needed. Specimen 
vouchers were preserved in sample vials in 80% isopropyl alcohol. 

Data Analysis — For the each rearing site, average return rate and total estimated 
production was estimated based on the 10% subsamples. Total estimated release (total 
production – subsamples) was also calculated. Temperature records were analysed to 
calculate min, max, mean, and 90% confidence intervals, to evaluate whether volunteers were 
maintaining optimal water temperatures. 

Results

Goose Lake – Expected return rate was 9.6 weevils out per weevil stocked, and 
Goose Lake’s return rate was 0.6. (Table 2) 720 weevils were initially stocked to the10 



rearing tanks, and total production was estimated at 400 weevils. Lab examinations 
observed: low occurrence of miscellaneous insects; substantial mixing of hybrid milfoil, 
M. sibiricum, and M. verticillatum stems; dead or bacteria-engulfed pupa; low 
occurrence of pupation sites; and low evidence of weevil damage on non-M. spicatum
stems. Due to an acute lack of available M. spicatum in Goose Lake, M. sibiricum and 
hybrid milfoil were also collected as an optional food choice when it became necessary. 
Water temperatures were monitored but not recorded. Tank temperatures were 
moderated by adding fresh groundwater as needed. 
Minong Flowage - Expected return rate was 9.6 weevils out per weevil stocked, 
and Minong Flowage’s return rate was 1.8. (Table 3) 720 weevils were initially stocked 
to the10 rearing tanks, and total production was estimated at 1,300 weevils. Lab 
examinations observed: low occurrence of miscellaneous insects; no non-M. spicatum
mixed in; heavy weevil damage to stems in some tanks; and fused, deformed milfoil 
leaflets and hardened, opaque stems (indicative of exposure to herbicides) in some 
tanks. Tank temperatures were moderated by adding fresh groundwater as needed. 
Water temperature ranged from 60 - 80 F, with a mean of 71 F. (Table 4) These 
temperatures were similar to temperatures expected (per Thorstenson 2011), but lower 
than the temperatures optimal for weevil production. (Figure 1) 
Lake Holcombe - Expected return rate was 9.6 weevils out per weevil stocked, 
and Lake Holcombe’s return rate was 3.1. (Table 5) 720 weevils were initially stocked 
to the10 rearing tanks, and total production was estimated at 2,090 weevils. Lab 
examinations observed: low occurrence of miscellaneous insects; no non-M. spicatum
species mixed in; poor stem health; heavy weevil damage to stems in some tanks; 



limited available oviposition sites; and fewer eggs than expected. Tank temperatures 
were moderated by adding fresh groundwater as needed. Water temperature ranged 
from 70 - 90 F, with a mean of 82 F. (Table 6) These temperatures were higher than 
temperatures expected (per Thorstenson 2011), and similar to temperatures optimal for 
weevil production. (Figure 1) 

Discussion

Goose Lake production was substantially lower than expected, and the optional 
feeding on non-M. spicatum species was likely the key problem. Temperatures were 
closely monitored (although not recorded), and not believed to be a problem. 
Subsample observations noted few miscellaneous insects, ruling out a predation 
problem. Subsample examinations confirmed several species of milfoil were used in 
feeding, including: M. sibiricum, hybrid milfoil (northern x M. spicatum), M. verticillatum
M. heterophyllum is also present in Goose Lake and may also have been fed, although 
subsample examinations did not confirm this. Subsample examinations noted problems 
with pupation (bacteria-laden pupa, dead pupa, few pupal chambers observed), and 
weevil damage observed on M. spicatum but not the other species that were mixed in. 
Weevil developmental time is longer, and developmental performance is poorer, on M. 
sibiricum than on their exotic host, M. spicatum (Newman et al. 1997). Research in the 
Midwest has found that weevil performance on hybrid milfoils was intermediate between 
the native hose (M. sibiricum) and the exotic host (M. spicatum) (Roley & Newman 
2006). Weevil developmental time is significantly longer when reared on M. 
verticillatum than on M. spicatum (37 days versus 21 days) (Solarz & Newman 2001). 



Additionally, oviposition (where they choose to lay their eggs) preference was 
significantly less for M. sibiricum and nearly absent for M. verticillatum in females that 
were reared on M spicatum (Solarz & Newman 2001). Weevil development on or 
preference for M. heterophyllum is unknown. Therefore, the optional feeding of other 
milfoils, although unpreventable due to an acute lack of M. spicatum in 2011, was likely 
the main factor in low production. 
Minong Flowage had lower than expected production, possibly due to a 
combination of factors. One factor may have been food stem quality. The Minong site 
was the shadiest of the three sites, and subsample examinations noted stems in very 
poor condition, some limp, as if they did not get enough sunlight. Additionally, some 
tubs had stems that were deformed (fused leaflets, tough, opaque stems) as if exposed 
to herbicides. Food stem collection was in an area of the Flowage that had not been 
treated with herbicides, but was within the same bay (Serenity Bay). (Appendix B) It 
would be possible that residual herbicides were insufficient to kill the milfoil there, but 
yet sufficient to cause growth deformities. These deformities may have negatively 
affected the plant’s qualities as a host plant for successful weevil development. (Note 
the dead pupa recoded in the same tub that had the deformed stems.) 
Lake Holcombe had lower than expected production, probably due to weevil 
development time being shorter than expected. The rearing site was in open prairie, 
with all-day sun, which allowed the tubs to warm more than expected. Volunteers 
managed the temperatures frequently, adding fresh, cool groundwater twice a day if 
needed to keep tanks from getting too hot during heat waves. Their temperature 
records reflect that effort, with tank temperatures hovering around a mean of 81 F, and 



a tight 90% confidence interval of less than 1 degree. We were expecting tub 
temperatures to average around 71 F, as in Thorstenson 2011, and for the full life cycle 
to take about 21 days. Lake Holcombe’s temperatures were closer to optimal 
temperatures for weevil development (84 F, Mazzei et al. 1999). At this temperature, 
the full life cycle takes only 17 days (Mazzei et al. 1999), which means the weevils 
should have been fed four days sooner, at each feeding cycle. Subsample 
examinations found heavy feeding damage, a shortage of healthy growing buds suitable 
for egg laying, and a shortage of healthy, fat stems suitable for pupation sites, all 
evidence that the weevils were running out of food and habitat, which certainly led to 
reduced production rates. 
Although the results of this study were well below expected, the problems 
encountered can be adjusted for with modifications to the methods. In future studies, it 
is recommended to: 
select rearing sites that have a minimum of 6 hours of sunlight to maintain 
healthy food stems; 
collect food stems well away from potential herbicide residue areas; 
avoid the optional use of other milfoil species; 
and to monitor temperatures regularly and shorten feeding cycle times at very 
sunny sites where optimal temperatures are attained. 

Acknowledgments

 
This study was funded by an Aquatic Invasive Species Grant (#AEPP-304-11) 
from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. This study would not have been 

10 

possible without the dedication of team leaders at each site: David Blumer, SEH, Inc., 
Reesa Evans, Adams County Land Conservation Department, and “Doc” Dougherty, 
Lake Holcombe Association; and their dedicated volunteer crews at Goose Lake 
Association, Swift Nature Camp, Minong Flowage Lake Association, and Lake 
Holcombe Association. 

References


Hanson, T., C. Eliopoulos, and A. Walker. 1995. Field Collection, Laboratory Rearing 
and In-lake Introductions of the Herbivorous Aquatic Weevil, Euhrychiopsis 
lecontei, in Vermont. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, 
Waterbury, VT. 
Mazzei, K.C., R.M. Newman, A. Loos, and D.W. Ragsdale. 1999. Developmental rates 
of the native milfoil weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, and damage to Eurasian 
watermilfoil at constant temperatures. Biological Control. 16:139-143. 
Newman, R.M., M.E. Borman, and S.W. Castro. 1997. Developmental performance of 
the weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei on native and exotic watermilfoil host-plants. J. 
of the North Amer. Benthological Soc. 16:627-634. 
Roley, S.S., and R.M. Newman. 2006. Developmental performant of the milfoil weevil, 
Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on northern watermilfiol, 
Eurasian watermilfoil, and hybrid (northern x Eurasian) watermilfoil. 
Entomological Soc. of Amer. 

Solarz, S.L. and R.M. Newman. 2001. Variation in hostplant preferences and 
performance by the milfoil weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei Dietz, exposed to native 
and exotic watermilfoils. Oecologia 126:66-75.

Thorstenson, A.L. 2011. Biological control of eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum 
spicatum) using the native milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei). M.S. Thesis. 
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI. 

One Tree can make a difference.
As we near Earth Day 2012 it is important that 
we all realize that the planting of 1 tree can make a difference. 
Read more about How trees change our life
The information below, except where noted, was taken from the LEAF Urban Forest Lesson Guide: 
The information provided is in reference to urban forests, but these benefits and values also apply to rural forests. 
Canopy, or tree canopy, is a term used to describe the leaves and branches of a tree or group of trees. In an urban forest, tree canopy is important to the potential benefits the forest may provide. In general, the more area it covers and the denser the canopy, the more benefits the trees can provide. Although one tree is better than none, 100 are better still. Whether the benefits are from one tree or many trees, they are all still real and most can be quantified in some way. Often, forest benefits are divided into three categories: social, economic, and ecologic. It is difficult to divide the benefits that the urban forest canopy provides into these categories because so many benefits fall into more than one. 


Social Benefits 


Just as with a rural forest, an urban forest provides many benefits. Numerous studies have been done about the social 
and psychological benefits of “green” in urban environments. The findings of the studies make a strong case for the 
importance of urban forests. Urban public housing residents who lived in buildings without trees and grass nearby were 
asked about how they cope with major life issues. They reported more procrastination and assessed their issues as more 
severe than residents with green nearby. 
A study done with children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) found that children with ADD were better able to focus 
and concentrate after playing in natural, green settings, than in settings where concrete was predominant. 
Apartment buildings with high levels of greenery have been shown to have approximately half the number of crimes 
than those with little or no greenery. The results proved true for both property crimes and violent crimes. A similar study 
found that residents living in areas without nearby nature reported more aggression and violence than those living with 
nearby green. In addition to these specific studies, access to nature also provides humans with other social benefits. 
Parks and other green spaces provide a space for people to play, walk, jog, birdwatch, or just sit quietly. These activities 
are good for our physical health in a society that is increasingly sedentary. It is also good for our mental health by 
providing a place to unwind. Trees also reduce noise levels. 

Economic Benefits 


The economic benefits of urban forests are increasingly being documented. Economics often becomes the language 
used when it comes to urban forest management. Budgets of municipalities must cover an array of services, and the 
benefits of an urban ecosystem must often be proven to secure funding. In a study that considered the costs and 
benefits of municipal forests in five U.S. cities, the researchers found that for every dollar spent on trees, the benefits 
returned were worth from $1.37 to $3.09. A little math tells us this is clearly a good investment. 
Trees save money through reduced energy costs. Cities create what is referred to as a heat island. The concrete, asphalt, 
buildings, and other surfaces absorb and hold heat from the sun. During hot summer days, cities can be five to nine 
degrees warmer than surrounding areas. Shading, evapotranspiration, and wind speed reduction provided by trees help 
conserve energy in buildings. A study conducted in Minneapolis, Minnesota, showed that trees placed in the proper 
location can reduce total heating and cooling costs by eight percent. 
Homeowners not only reduce costs of heating and cooling their homes, but increase the value of their property by 
planting trees. Research suggests that property value can increase three to seven percent when trees are present. Trees 
also make homes and neighborhoods more desirable places to live. One economic benefit that urban trees can provide, 
but often don’t, is one based on products. Municipalities and tree services across the country have come up with ways 
to use the wood that is cut from an urban forest. Products range from specialty furniture, to musical instruments, to 
lumber for park shelters, to artwork. The income from selling products from the wood of trees being removed could be used to defray the cost associated with the removal, making trees an even better investment. 


Trees and Climate Change


The information about how trees impact climate change is taken from the National Arbor Day website 
http://www.arborday.org/globalwarming/treesHelp.cfm, and the American Forest Foundation website 
www.americanforests.org/resources/climatechange/ 
Deciduous trees, planted on the west, east and south sides, will keep your house cool in the summer and let the sun 
warm your home in the winter, reducing energy use. 
Just three trees, properly placed around a house, can save up to 30% of energy use. 
Trees or shrubs planted to shade air conditioners help cool a building more efficiently, using less electricity. A unit 
operating in the shade uses as much as 10% less electricity than the same one operating in the sun. 
Neighborhoods with well-shaded streets can be up to 6–10° F cooler than neighborhoods without street trees, reducing 
the heat-island effect, and reducing energy needs. 
Shaded parking lots keep automobiles cooler, reducing emissions from fuel tanks and engines, and helping reduce the 
heat-island effect in communities. 
Trees absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary gas causing global climate change. Trees retain the carbon (C) from the 
CO2 molecule and release oxygen (O2) into the atmosphere. The retained carbon makes up half the dry weight of a tree. 
Forests are the world's second largest carbon reservoirs (oceans are the largest). Unlike oceans, however, we can grow 
new forests. One acre of forestland will sequester between 150 - 200 tons of CO2 in its first 40 years. 

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Winter

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Oak Brook, IL 60523

Phone: 630-654-8036

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Camp

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Minong, WI 54859

Phone: 715-466-5666

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